Day 25: Misaligned Monday

Can we talk about lithotomy position? You know, the supine (on the spine) position with legs placed in stirrups? The position commonly used in birth?

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Photo Credit: Google Images Lithotomy Position

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Photo Credit: Google Images – Lithotomy Position

Before we go too far, let’s just say that this position was developed so that a doctor who is delivering a baby has access to the mother. Therefore, this position commonly utilized during the birthing process was designed for the benefit of the doctor. Otherwise, the position tends to be detrimental to the mother’s health, and it can also be detrimental to the health of the baby.

I woke up with aching hips and a low back that is very sensitive today. It happens – every few weeks I have tension through this region of my body. Which I directly attribute to birthing my daughter in the lithotomy position, and then holding and carrying my daughter on my hips since she was a few months old.

Why this hard stance toward lithotomy? Well, this position makes the mother work against gravity and places an immense amount of force against the mother’s pelvic structure. This position narrows the birth canal opening. This position makes the baby work against these constraints (and sometimes injures the baby too.) This position results in more birth-related complications than anything else. Just another antiquated procedure used past its expiration date in the women’s health arena. (That’s a whole other blog post, probably a series of blog posts!)

For me, this position caused a second degree laceration, or tear, to my perineum (the area that connects the anus and the vulva) which resulted in a suture line that I had to manage immediately postpartum. (Ouchy!!!) For me, this position drove my right hip forward and out of alignment. Two and a half years later, this disharmony certainly needs to be resolved. So here’s my plan of action – I will be scheduling an appointment with a chiropractor, and scheduling an appointment with an acupuncturist, and attending a few yoga classes this week, and walking, and swimming. I hope that all of this will help my lower back and hips feel better. In the meantime, thank goodness for the Healing Rose’s Extra Strength CBD Salve!

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The Healing Rose – CBD Herbal Extra Strength Salve

And because this disharmony in my body is driving this blog post – here’s my Public Service Announcement:  Mamas-to-Be…If you are quickly heading into the birthing room, please educate yourself about positions that are much more functional in facilitating the birth of your baby.

I spent a fair amount of my labor process on my hands and knees. Hindsight is 20/20, but I know now that I should have delivered on my hands and knees to protect my hips and low back and perineum from injury. My body naturally found this position and really wanted to stay there. Had I delivered at home and not needed to transfer to hospital, I would’ve delivered in this position. And Mamas – You’ll come across obstetricians who do not deliver babies unless the Mama is in lithotomy position (that’s what happened to me.) Please know that this may very well be the position that works best for you, but in too many cases, this position causes more harm than good. To this end, educate whoever will be supporting you during your birthing process (your life partner, your family, your doula, etc.) so that they are able to advocate for you when the time comes. There are many positions that are more comfortable for you, that are safer for you, and safer for baby. And if you are about to become a Mama for the first time, or the fifth – I hope that you feel empowered to have the birthing process that you desire. Every Mama deserves to have the birthing process she desires. And every baby deserves to have a Mama who feels empowered and inspired by her birthing process. Not achy and ouchy and traumatized.

In the maternal health arena, the United States has the worst record in the developed world when it comes to  maternal deaths and complications. Most of which are completely preventable. We need to do things differently. Mamas and families who are educated and empowered to have the birthing experiences they desire will play a role in creating these shifts. If this topic interests you, or if you need more information, please reach out. More on this topic later. Off soapbox, for now.

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Photo Credit: Google Images

As always dear readers, wishing you a bright, beautiful, tension-free, pain-free day! Happy Monday! Namaste. ❤


 My Mental House – Plans & Goals for Healing from Depression

Goal — To Gain Clarity

Plan — Meditate for at least 10 minutes daily, eventually expanding on the amount of time a couple minutes per day, with 20 minutes of daily meditation being the target sit time.  

More Plans — Go to bed and get up at the same time every day. Lights out by 10pm and wake up at 7am would be a good starting point for me. 

Goal — To Reduce and Prevent Insomnia

Plan – No electronic devices before meditation/yoga practice in the morning. No electronic devices for at least one hour before bedtime. DEFINITELY NEED TO IMPLEMENT THIS PLAN!!! I’ll be in bed by 9pm tonight. 

Plan – Read more books instead of staring at electronic devices, especially at night READ BOOKS, NOT ELECTRONICS!!! 

Goal — To Relieve Depressed Mood, Anxiety Symptoms, and Relieve Pain

Plan — Move!!!! Yoga, Swim, Walk – DO ONE OF THESE ACTIVITIES DAILY

Yoga — Attend at least 2 classes a week, practice most days of the week for a minimum of 15 minutes a day. Practice in the morning after waking. May precede meditation. 

Swim — 10–20 laps

Walk — Just get out and walk. 

More Plans — Medicate with cannabis as needed.

  • 1-3 inhales from a vaporizer with a CBD-rich strain first thing in the morning if panic/anxiety/pain not relieved by self care bodywork is on board
  • 2–3 inhales from a vaporizer with an indica-dominant strain by 7:30pm to reduce tension and promote sleep. I feel a cannabis holiday on the horizon. Perhaps for 3 days, perhaps for longer. CBD products ordered!!!

Goal — To Nourish My Body To Heal Up From Depression, Anxiety, and Panic

Plan – In the morning — Smoothie (I have a kefir, kombucha, Vega Protein Powder, and Amazing Grass Superfood smoothie every morning.)

28 Days of Clean Eating inspired meals – Gotta pull a recipe for tonight’s supper


The Cannabis Closet Minority — Mothers

Motherhood is many things. It is beautiful, it is messy, it is really damn hard, it is fun, it is dramatic, it is challenging, it is rewarding. The role of Mother is arguably one of the most judged positions on Earth. Pore over any of the social media sites and it won’t take long to find a mother being judged for any number of reasons large or small. I reviewed social media to gather some of this data. After a couple minutes of review, I noted that moms are being judged for using bug spray on their kids, feeding their children fast food, feeding their kids a vegan diet, exposing their kids to the sun, giving their kids smart devices, clothing their kids in non-organic cotton, shopping at Walmart, leaving their 10 year old in the car during a quick stop into a gas station for a cup of coffee, consuming cannabis, and drinking wine. Except moms are not being judged for drinking wine. They’re being embraced because of their decision to drink a couple glasses of wine after a long day with their kiddos! Why? Because alcohol is normalized and accepted in our culture. The moms who choose to use cannabis though? These moms are perhaps the most judged of the lot. Because, stigma. Honestly, that’s one of the main reasons for this discrepancy between the wine drinking mothers and the cannabis-consuming mothers. It’s stigma.

So let’s review a few of the reasons, inaccurate data, and common themes as to why stigma keeps cannabis-consuming mothers in the closet, and how we can stop stigma from being a point of judgement for these mothers.

1. Cannabis impairs a mother’s ability to care for her child or children.

It certainly can, but in many cases, mothers who consume cannabis for the purpose of treating symptoms related to chronic conditions enjoy relief, thereby helping these mothers be present and available to care for their child and/or children. In my practice, I find that mothers do not want to be high while taking care of their kids. However, they do want to relieve their symptoms. To this end, there are many different strains that don’t promote the stoned effect that the THC-rich ones do. Cannabidiol, aka CBD — is a non-psychoactive powerhouse cannabinoid with analgesic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory properties to name just a few of its benefits. And there are many cannabis products that have been created with this therapeutic element in mind. But stigma only makes simple equations. In this scenario, cannabis consumption equates to being a bad parent.

2. Kids should not be exposed to secondhand cannabis smoke.

True. Kids should not be exposed to cannabis in any way unless they are being treated for their own chronic condition, and ideally, there is oversight by a qualified health professional. Scientists, researchers, and medical professionals are still determining the long-term impacts that cannabis could have on the developing brain. However, there are other methods of cannabis consumption. Most of the mothers I know prefer discreet methods of consumption that keep their children safe from these potential harms. Edibles, medibles, using a vaporizer, tinctures, transdermal patches are just a few of the administration methods preferred by the incredible cannabis-consuming mothers that I know. And the ones who decide to smoke a bowl after a long day of chasing their kiddos? You know, the mothers who just want to relax with a little help from cannabis? Most make sure they consume somewhere out of the way of their kids, usually after the kids are tucked into bed.

3. This one’s a biggie: Cannabis concentrates in breastmilk.

Breastfeeding mothers are some of the most judged people period. It seems that once a woman becomes pregnant, she enters into a place where boundaries are no longer apparent. Everyone has an opinion on what she should eat, what she should do or shouldn’t do. The opinions and judgments only continue for the breastfeeding mother. A common theme held in the mainstream medical field — cannabis is concentrated in breastmilk. Meaning that somehow, it was conceived that a baby exposed to THC via breastmilk would intake upwards of 8 times the amount of THC that the mother consumed. The study that came to this conclusion had just two subjects and was conducted in 1982. This antiquated data also fuels stigma.

Earlier this year, Dr. Thomas Hale and his colleague, Dr. Theresa Baker, commenced a study to determine if the old information that explicitly states that THC passes through breastmilk, and is concentrated in breastmilk, is actually accurate. After all, it is his authored resource — Medications and Mothers’ Milk — that has bolstered this stigma for cannabis-consuming mothers.

For years, Dr. Hale’s publication has conveyed the data from that 1982 study. Drs. Hale and Baker have now determined that this data is not supported by the known information about lactation and cannabis metabolism in the human body. In fact, Drs. Hale and Baker have discussed that there is no mechanism by which THC would increase in breastmilk. They have also concluded that storage of cannabis metabolites in breast tissue is very minimal, and that THC specifically metabolizes in real time — meaning a mother who is nursing her child while under the influence of cannabis may expose her baby to THC for the first few hours, but potential exposure does not persist once the mother is no longer under the influence. Therefore, with this information on board, mothers who choose to use cannabis should refrain from breastfeeding for a couple hours following administration. Do you know who else should refrain from breastfeeding for a couple hours after consumption? Mothers who choose to consume wine.

There are all kinds of mothers on the spectrum of motherhood. Good ones, bad ones, and everything in between. Keeping mothers in the cannabis closet places them and their children at risk. How? We are communal creatures who depend on our communities to thrive. The notion that it takes a village is very true. Every mother depends on her village to help her as she raises her children. Stigma is isolating and promotes distrust of the community at large. Therefore, stigma harms mothers if it isolates her and her children. Harming mothers — the typical primary caregivers for the next generation of human beings since the beginning of time — hurts all of us. It’s time we rise above stigmas like this for the benefit of each other, for the benefit of our fellow humans.

For parents who live in states where cannabis is not legal. The stigma you face is not just based in antiquated beliefs and propaganda, there are also potential legal ramifications for being a parent who happens to consume cannabis. Please familiarize yourself with your own state’s laws to protect yourself and your family.

In closing, I would just like to say that I am a proud Mom who Elevates. Cannabis helps me effectively treat chronic pain, anxiety, depression, and insomnia. Cannabis helps me to rest and relax. Cannabis helps me to be a better Mom. I am proud to stand with other mothers who choose this plant to promote rest, relaxation, improve their health, and to be present in the lives of their children. I refuse to let stigma stand in my way. I hope you feel empowered to come out of the cannabis closet and step into the light as well.


My Take On It: What I learned from Thomas Hale, R.Ph., Ph.D. (2017, February 1). Retrieved from https://www.elephantcircle.net/circle/2017/2/1/my-take-on-it-what-i-learned-from-thomas-hale-rph-phd

Perez-Reyes M, Wall ME. Presence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in human milk. N Engl J Med. 1982;307:819–820. [PubMed]


Day 19: I’m Spoiling Myself Today

This morning I woke up anxious after a good sleep, but a very long day with my daughter. She’s 2.5 years old and yesterday she tested every boundary she could cross. Or at least, I feel that’s what she was working toward. So today, I got up late because Little Miss Toddler Girl was still pushing limits as we were trying to get to sleep at a reasonable time last night. I’m not sure what time we all fell asleep. There were several attempts to keep Little Miss Toddler Girl in the bed. I was done. I was ready to put our long day to rest and make way for a fresh one. Finally, she was quiet, and still, and we were able to get to sleep.

Upon waking, I realized that I need to get out of the house, and stay out today. For my sanity. No, this Mama will not be juggling household chores with phone calls and writing today. Which is typically how I spend my Tuesdays. So, I’m spoiling myself today.

So…what does a Mama who is absolutely committed to spoiling herself do? I dropped Little Miss Toddler Girl off at daycare and headed to my first Aerial Yoga class. And I might be a teeny bit obsessed with it. For someone who has been struggling with anxiety first thing in the morning – my yoga practice typically centers on rooting down to build a strong foundation from my feet upward. Today – I was flying above the floor. I was lifted. I was supported. I was challenged. I loved every second of this class. And I feel lighter (and more toned!) than I have in a while. Wow. I really, truly, honestly feel great as I write this. And man, I am so incredibly grateful!

If you are local and you too are interested in soaring through your yoga practice, check out the Dolphin Studio in Leominster, Massachusetts. The first class is FREE!!! No yoga practice necessary – beginners are welcome. If you’re not local to the great state of Massachusetts, then look in your own community for a similar class. Heck, do it for the floating savasana – the final resting posture of most yoga practices. You get to extend your legs and lie down in your hammock and just be rocked for a few minutes. Folks, grownups need to be rocked too! We rock babies to calm them, to help their central nervous systems come to a place of peace and calm. THIS is exactly what I was able to enjoy in my own yoga hammock. Peace and calm. And floating. Floating. I’m still floating.

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Photo Credit:  Google Images – Floating Savasana

So now I am at this lovely cafe in the neighboring town (shout out to Chaibo!), writing my blog post and slurping down a chai tea latte. This Mama could get used to this whole spoiling thing. And perhaps, my mindset needs to change because as I write this, I realize how desperately I’ve needed a day like this. One that belongs to me. Just me. One that fills my cup. One that makes me feel weightless. And well. No, this is not me being spoiled. This is me taking care of me. This is self-care. This is self-love. And this Mama deserves both.

Dear readers – I wish you a bright and beautiful day as always! Much love, many hugs, Namaste. ❤


My Mental House – Plans & Goals for Healing from Depression

Goal — To Gain Clarity

Plan — Meditate for at least 10 minutes daily, eventually expanding on the amount of time a couple minutes per day, with 20 minutes of daily meditation being the target sit time.  

More Plans — Go to bed and get up at the same time every day. Lights out by 10pm and wake up at 7am would be a good starting point for me. 

Goal — To Reduce and Prevent Insomnia

Plan – No electronic devices before meditation/yoga practice in the morning. No electronic devices for at least one hour before bedtime. DEFINITELY NEED TO IMPLEMENT THIS PLAN!!! I’ll be in bed by 9pm tonight. 

Plan – Read more books instead of staring at electronic devices, especially at night READ BOOKS, NOT ELECTRONICS!!! 

Goal — To Relieve Depressed Mood, Anxiety Symptoms, and Relieve Pain

Plan — Move!!!! Yoga, Swim, Walk – AERIAL YOGA ROCKS!!!! 

Yoga — Attend at least 2 classes a week, practice most days of the week for a minimum of 15 minutes a day. Practice in the morning after waking. May precede meditation. 

Swim — 10–20 laps

Walk — Just get out and walk. 

More Plans — Medicate with cannabis as needed.

  • 1-3 inhales from a vaporizer with a CBD-rich strain first thing in the morning if panic/anxiety/pain not relieved by self care bodywork is on board
  • 2–3 inhales from a vaporizer with an indica-dominant strain by 7:30pm to reduce tension and promote sleep. I feel a cannabis holiday on the horizon. Perhaps for 3 days, perhaps for longer. CBD products should arrive soon. 

Goal — To Nourish My Body To Heal Up From Depression, Anxiety, and Panic

Plan – In the morning — Smoothie (I have a kefir, kombucha, Vega Protein Powder, and Amazing Grass Superfood smoothie every morning.)

28 Days of Clean Eating inspired meals – Gotta pull a recipe for tonight’s supper


Mommy Empowerment is Important Ahead of Birth

In my weekly Prenatal Yoga class, I often bring up a topic that I would like to hear more about in the Maternal Health Community. Mommy Empowerment. In this community, I am considered a “Birther.” A person who believes in the power, beauty, and sanctity of the birthing process. A person who believes that in most cases, birth doesn’t need any intervention at all. The medical community very often depicts this very special period in a family’s life as a time of consistent monitoring, complete with a laundry list of potential interventions that the qualified medical team is ready to perform should the need arise. Many of these interventions are absolutely necessary and we are fortunate that medicine, science, and research has developed into what it is, so that we may benefit from these interventions if need be. However, if we take a look at the big picture, most families do not require any interventions at all to have a healthy baby. In fact, most families require support, education, love, a safe space to welcome a new little soul into this world, financial resources to support the growth in their family, and more emotional support.

The medicalization of pregnancy and birth leaves many soon-to-be Mommas dis-empowered and fearful. I recall my own tour of the maternity ward that my husband and I chose for the birth of our daughter. The labor and delivery suites were nice, fully stocked with all of the equipment needed to facilitate the birth of our baby. The postpartum unit was beautiful — very much like a hotel with many of the comforts of home and a room-service menu to boot! And then there was the explanation of how the labor process works at this particular medical center. It was during this aspect of the tour that the laundry list of interventions was discussed. Augmentation of labor, pharmacological pain management, failure to progress timelines, when the baby will be delivered by cesarean section if there’s a noted problem on the fetal heart rate monitor, or if labor has simply gone on for too long were all touched upon in the span of a few minutes. I looked around the room and realized that many of the soon-to-be Mommies had their shoulders raised at this point. One Mommy became very flush and asked for a seat. From my training, from my background, I knew that one of these Mommies out of ten of us would likely need to be delivered via cesarean section. And she likely knew it already from her prenatal appointments. But sadly, it was more likely that three of those Mommies would need to have cesarean sections because their labors would stall out, or their baby started to have challenges tolerating prolonged labor. There are many factors that contribute to these issues, but fear is likely a serious culprit in such circumstances.

What was missing from that tour? Empowering language, a discussion of natural labor. A reassuring comment that women have babies, women are meant to have babies, and women have been doing so for millennia. A discussion of how fear can impede the birthing process, slowing labor and going against the clock that most women birthing in hospitals and medical centers are placed on at time of admission.

Adding to this lack of Mommy Empowerment — Birth stories have become the female version of war stories. The thirty-six hour labors, the pain, the epidurals, the difficult pushing for hours, the episiotomies, the vacuum-assisted deliveries, the scary emergency cesarean sections. Human beings tend to share their stories of struggle and pain in a way that helps them to process the experience that they’ve endured, but sharing negative birthing experiences with women who are about to become mothers is not helpful. It only invites fear and anxiety during a time when the soon to be mom really needs encouragement to have the birth she desires. These stories become imprinted on the minds and hearts of the women who are about to enter into their own birthing experiences. Such stories may have been conveyed with good intentions in mind, but in many cases, such stories just bolster doubts, worries, and amplify feelings of unpreparedness.

It’s time we do better fellow women! Women are by nature, the nurturers. But when it comes to nurturing each other, we overwhelmingly fail. It really does take a village to raise a child though! This has not changed for us as communal creatures. Society has changed, but every family needs support and guidance from their community. So we need to work toward supporting each other. Sharing our successes and providing encouragement ultimately empowers all of us.


Improving Practice Standards Surrounding Birth, Breastfeeding, Cannabis, and Beyond

shutterstock_461418109Cannabis use during pregnancy is a significantly challenging topic. In addition to the challenges pregnant women face should they choose to use cannabis to treat pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting, there are serious problems and consequences surrounding breastfeeding. As an RN (also a non-practicing doula and prenatal yoga teacher) who specializes in women’s health and advocates for uninterrupted birth — I find these issues to be most concerning.

Women who test positive for THC throughout their pregnancies, and following labor and delivery, are advised against breastfeeding. Using the term “advised” is a kind understatement — these women are usually forced to give up breastfeeding from the start. The hours following birth are very sensitive and interfering with a mother’s ability to breastfeed places both mother and baby at risk for significant trauma — especially if the mother plans on breastfeeding. Preventing a new mother who planned to breastfeed from doing so will almost certainly send her into a significant experience of postpartum depression (PPD) which may impede her ability to bond with her baby. In the case of the infant, that baby may not learn to latch properly, that baby may not receive any of the dense nutrients from colostrum, and stimulating lactation may be impeded. The consequences could be devastating long term as we know that breastfeeding is important for the development of the healthy human microbiome — the well-functioning immune system. Therefore, my concern is that interfering with a mother’s ability to breastfeed from the start could potentially set baby up for a lifetime of risk related to inadequate immune function, in addition to the risks associated with creating trauma for a brand new family.

Recently, Dr. Thomas Hale, PhD — the author of Medications and Mother’s Milk — one of the foremost authorities surrounding pharmacology and the perinatal periodcommenced a study to determine the pharmacokinetics of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in breastmilk. Participants were asked to collect breastmilk for 6 hours after smoking a determined amount of cannabis flower. What he and his colleague, Dr. Teresa Baker, found was that cannabis is not concentrated in breastmilk. This alone is reason enough to review and amend practice standards, but let’s look at this on a broader scale. Read more about Dr. Hale’s study here — https://www.elephantcircle.net/circle/2017/2/1/my-take-on-it-what-i-learned-from-thomas-hale-rph-phd

In medicine, when it comes to breastfeeding — the rationale for breastfeeding with substances on board comes down to weighing the benefits versus risks. Women who take some SSRIs, opioid/narcotic medications, and benzodiazepenes (sometimes a combination of all three) are encouraged to breastfeed despite the known risks associated with exposing neonates and infants to these medications via breastmilk. All risks with these substances are considered low by the medical establishment. Women who smoke tobacco are encouraged to use nicotine patches (or Wellbutrin — another SSRI) and breastfeed despite data that suggests nicotine exposure is a major factor in the occurrence of SIDS. To this end, we have limited understanding of the the long term risks associated with exposure to these medications for these babies. The research does indicate that the impacts from these substances may include neurobehavioral and potential cognitive challenges in exposed infants. The research also suggests that the impacts for babies exposed to cannabis long-term may include similar challenges.

So if all things are equal (not even close, but hopefully someday soon), and the research indicates that similar risks are associated with exposure to the aforementioned prescription medications as well as cannabis, then we need to stop interfering with women who choose to medicate with cannabis to treat their symptoms. Legalized states especially should no longer maintain such standards. Women who make such decisions should be able to discuss their cannabis use with their doctors, midwives, nurses, and pediatricians for the best outcomes across the board. Families face enough challenges, trauma caused by the medical establishment and Child Protective Services following birth of a baby shouldn’t be included in those challenges. The medical establishment is doing harm by interfering with this significantly sensitive time, which is a serious violation of the Hippocratic oath — the principle which dictates that medical professionals do not cause injury or harm to their patients. It’s time to review these practice standards, to help and empower families who choose to use cannabis in a therapeutic way instead of punishing them, thereby setting them up for serious challenges as they start their new life together. The goal is healthy families, right? The answer is yes, yes it is.


Butterfield, D. (2016, April 17). Marijuana And Pregnancy #1: Breastfeeding and Marijuana, A Touchy Subject. Retrieved from http://herb.co/2016/03/13/breastfeeding-and-marijuana-a-touchy-subject/

Behnke, M., MD, & Smith, V. C., MD. (2013, February 25). Prenatal Substance Abuse: Short- and Long-term Effects on the Exposed Fetus. Retrieved from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/131/3/e1009.full.pdf

Arnold, S. (n.d.). The Shocking State of Cannabis-Related Child Protection in Massachusetts. Retrieved from http://flcalliance.org/writing/the-shocking-state-of-cannabis-related-child-protection-in-massachusetts/

Breastfeeding and Prescription Pain Medication. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://intermountainhealthcare.org/ext/Dcmnt?ncid=520732125

Day, N. L., Leech, S. L., & Goldschmidt, L. (2011). The Effects of Prenatal Marijuana Exposure on Delinquent Behaviors are Mediated by Measures of Neurocognitive Functioning. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3052937/

Garry, A., Rigourd, V., Amirouche, A., Fauroux, V., Aubry, S., & Serreau, R. (2009). Cannabis and Breastfeeding. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2809366/#B19

Motion picture on Online. (2014). Alto Films. Retrieved from http://microbirth.com/the-film/

Is it safe for a smoker to breastfeed her baby? What about using the nicotine patch and other smoking cessation aids? (2008, November 12). Retrieved from http://www.lalecheleague.org/faq/smoking.html

Nonacs, R., MD, PhD. (2015, August 12). Breastfeeding and Benzodiazepines: Good News. Retrieved from https://womensmentalhealth.org/posts/breastfeeding-and-benzodiazepines-good-news/

Odent, M. (2002). The First Hour Following Birth: Don’t Wake the Mother!by Michel Odent. Retrieved from https://www.midwiferytoday.com/articles/firsthour.asp